The project "Innovation in Knowledge Management Company: typology, methodology and recommendations" (INNOVARRA) aims to identification and development of methods and technologies of knowledge management, corresponding to the different domains and types of knowledge of the enterprise, as well as providing the greatest effect on the final results of company operations.
Ideas about the feasibility of differentiation of methods and tools of knowledge management depending on the knowledge types and domains are supported by empirical research of knowledge formalization strategies of Shultz and Jobe. The same study has shown the importance of matching the knowledge type and forms of codification, as well as the relevance of the application of contingency theory.
To achieve its goal INNOVARRA project has been divided into 5 tracks of research. Track A examines the impact of various elements of intellectual capital on the operations of Russian companies, as well as the practice of knowledge management influencing on key elements of the intellectual capital of the Russian companies and, accordingly, have the greatest effect on the operations of Russian companies. Track B describes the knowledge types and domains and provides the basis for the differentiation of knowledge management methods and tools. The remaining three tracks are considering the examples of knowledge management methods and tools in several areas, namely: management of customer knowledge and knowledge about the products and / or services (Track С), knowledge in the field of operations management (Track D), knowledge in the field of strategic management and organizational development (Track E).
As part of the management of customer knowledge (Track С) emphasis is on the notion of customer orientation, that from the point of view of knowledge management is based on explicit (expressed by the client) and implicit (latent) knowledge of customer needs and the factors influencing them (including knowledge of the value chain of the client in the present and the future). A link between customer orientation and the related knowledge with the efficiency of innovation processes (with the creation of knowledge about the products and services) is found. Production and use of external knowledge (customers, partners) increases the effectiveness of innovation processes. During the innovation process with partners (including customers) knowledge is created through the interaction (cocreation) and ongoing mutual learning. The latter explains the relevance of such an instrument as the knowledge management / training within the construction and management of relational learning.
As part of the track В in terms of working with knowledge in the field of Operations Management relevance of context-oriented KM, support of knowledge networks, the presence of the single information space on the basis of ontology is proved, as well as the growing role of the Internet of things and socio-cyber-physical systems in the company operations is demonstrated. The use of such techniques and instruments is explained by the evolution of the discipline "Operations Management", due to the influence of current trends in the global economy and technology. Based in the late twentieth century, mainly on the methods of mathematical modeling of industrial processes, operations management in the XXI century increasingly detects binding to the management disciplines. The latter primarily include Management Information Systems, marketing, general management, strategic management and others.
As part of the work with the knowledge in the field of strategic management and organizational development (Track E) the attention was focused on the use of visual and matrix methods of knowledge structuring and representation.
Track A. "Effect of KM practices on business results"
Within the research the level of usage of knowledge management practices and the level of development of intellectual capital elements are analyzed. We also research whether there is relationship between these elements and company’s organizational performance. The data that was obtained with the help of a survey of 240 Russian manufacturing companies is used in the research.
One of the goals of the research is to define how different elements of intellectual capital influence company’s organizational performance. The results bring us to the conclusion that structural and human capitals have a tight relationship with company’s performance explaining 25% of variation of the dependent variable, while human capital is not significant explaining this relationship. We also find out that the influence of structural capital is higher in comparison to human capital.
The analysis of different knowledge management practices in Russian manufacturing companies brings us to the following results. About 80% of Russian companies apply organizational learning practices. Then next practices that are widely used are knowledge protection and IT management practices for knowledge management in a company. The least developed practices are the following: strategic knowledge and competence management practices, involvement of management team in knowledge management process and the development of organizational design for knowledge management in a company.
Track B. "Typology and generalized enterprise knowledge map"
Systematization of types, properties and areas of expertise in the INNOVARRA is intended to differentiate KM methods and tools and is based on the idea of the "triad": "knowledge domain - the type or characteristics of knowledge - a method or a tool of KM", that is, in a certain area is dominated by knowledge with some characteristics, which are better suited to certain methods and tools.
As a result of studies on track B a new typology of knowledge has been formed, the key feature of which includes only the knowledge types which essentially influence the choice of tools and methods of knowledge management (or groups). For structuring typical knowledge domains of the company a generalized map of knowledge was offered, based on three points:
- objects that are important for business;
- activities performed by the company;
To differentiate the methods and tools of knowledge management we have performed their preliminary review, analysis and systematization of studies linking the types and areas of expertise with the methods and tools of knowledge management and conducted a pilot empirical study aimed at identifying the links between the types of knowledge, knowledge domains and tools of KM.
Track C. "Working with knowledge on products/services and customers, customer orientation"
As a result of the performed research on the track an integrated definition of customer focus was adopted where customer orientation was explained as company activities aimed to identify target customers and their key needs to create added value for an extended period of time, integrating the interests of the company owners, managers and employees to improve the financial performance of the company in the long run. Within the empirical study clusters of Russian companies according to perception of the customer orientation concept were identified.
The analysis identified indicators of customer knowledge of products / services that affect the success of their commercialization. It was also confirmed that for successful customer knowledge management companies need to form the customer knowledge base, as well as approaches to measuring these groups of indicators (which can be developed in the framework of consumer brand equity concept). It has been empirically verified that involvement of customers in the earlier stages of the innovation process and thus gain of additional knowledge from them, contributes to a higher chance of successful commercialization of innovations. It was also found that the strongest effect is achieved with the involvement of customers in the innovation process at the stages of ideation, innovation creation and development, while firms with higher levels of customer orientation are getting superior outcomes.
Track D. "Working with knowledge in operations management"
As result of state-of-the-art analysis of advanced approaches for creation and operation modern production (business) networks, particularly networks based on cyber-physical systems was developed a multi-level networked conceptual & technological model of knowledge management for decision support by the production networks participants. This model describes knowledge localizations into interconnected problem-oriented networks (social network, knowledge network, information network, work network, competence network and inter-organizational network) and using for support these networks information technologies (virtual community, HR & KM, Internet and cloud computation, crowd sourcing and recommendation systems for decision support, knowledge map, semantic-driven interoperability based on ontology using).
Specification of requirements to context-oriented knowledge management for decision support by the production networks participants was developed. The major requirement list (related the operational management specific) includes flexibility, learning from the user, consistency / integrity, velocity, open connectivity, reasoning, customizability, and hard' real-time.
Track E. "Working with knowledge in strategic management and organizational development"
The project examined major trends in strategic management. On the one hand that allowed proceeding to the analysis of methods of working with knowledge in this domain, and on the other hand - to justify the relevance of enterprise transformation management, as an element of organizational development, which provides dynamic capabilities for the company. The scope of strategic management includes different knowledge domains represented at the aggregated level - knowledge about customers, markets, products, partners, technologies, the enterprise itself. While enterprise transformation management mostly requires knowledge about enterprise; organization of work – about goals, business and IT structure, project portfolio etc.
An analysis of the literature identified the following problems in the development and implementation of the strategy:
- cognitive (information overload, the rigidity of the old points of view, and others.)
- social (different viewpoints of the team members and the need for their integration, and others.)
- emotional (lack of a sense of belonging to strategies, and other).
As a result of the review of the visual methods used in the tasks of strategic management and organizational development, 3 basic classifications of methods were suggested: K1 - according to stages of the strategic management process, K2 - according to knowledge aspect, K3 - according to the form. Also, as part of the research we have tested the classification of visual methods and the selection approach within the case study of reorganization of "Marketing" function at the large industrial enterprise.
It was indicated that matrix methods are more effective than diagrams for a number of situations and tasks. So the study included the review of matrix methods used in the tasks of strategic management and organizational development. As a result of the review the classification matrix methods was presented: the decision matrix; matrix of relations; tables; profiles.
The high potential use of enterprise architecture management methods and tools for work with the knowledge in the field of strategic management and enterprise transformation management was identified.