E. Grinberg, A. Pleshkova, L. Selivanovskikh. Exploring the Knowledge Management Phenomenon in Russia: A Stakeholders’ Perspective. Working Paper #1 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Key words and phrases: knowledge workers, knowledge managers, knowledge management systems, stakeholder theory.
Abstract: The question of whether knowledge management (KM) models are contextually universal has been extensively addressed by research and practice. For over a quarter of a decade management scholars and practitioners have tested the universal validity and applicability of KM practices and technological tools in different settings, primarily focusing on the idiosyncrasies of the national and/or organizational culture profiles. Recognizing the cultural biasness of knowledge-related processes, they have explored the role of the country context in the efficiency of management interventions and investigated the potential effect of the national culture on an organization’s ability to manage high potentials and build innovation capabilities via the adaptation and integration of relevant KM practices.
Though the contemporary discourse on the feasibility of the culture-of-the-model approach in these fields is at the point of animation, the context-specific enablers of the emergence and legitimization of KM in countries that do not follow the Western or Eastern management tradition are not explicitly studied, which significantly limits one’s understanding of the nature and role of KM in firms from particular clusters of countries. In particular, KM in Russia is at the stage of formation – it remains underdeveloped in this context, despite different stakeholders, inter alia, management consultants, executives from local governmental and non-governmental organizations, representatives of the teaching / scientific communities, and managerial talents from KM-adjacent fields, acknowledging the role knowledge and knowledge-related systems play in the creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantage. We therefore aim at analyzing the KM phenomenon in Russia through the lens of stakeholders’ theory and investigating the country-specific peculiarities of KM emergence, development and acceptance.
D. Sokolov, E. Zavyalova. Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management Strategies: Looking for a Fit. Working Paper #2 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Key words and phrases: knowledge management strategy, human resource management strategy, competitive strategy, strategic configurations, strategic fit, horizontal fit.
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to explore the theoretical underpinnings of a fit between knowledge management (KM), human resource management (HRM) and competitive strategies of knowledge-intensive organizations. The paper is based on a review of strategic KM and strategic HRM literature. Based on resource-based view, behavioral, contingent and configurational (complementarity) perspectives, the article proposes a number of testable propositions regarding the alignment between the strategies at different levels (KM, HRM, competitive).
The review demonstrates effects of the strategic fit between personalization knowledge management strategy, commitment-oriented HRM strategy and differentiation-based competitive strategy, as well as between codification knowledge management strategy, control-oriented HRM strategy and cost leadership-based competitive strategy. Other combinations of strategies are considered to be less complimentary. Combined three strategies constitute particular strategic configurations that may have both positive and negative synergies influencing employee behavior and organizational outcomes. This study adds value to the literature by discussing mechanisms underlying the strategic interaction of the functional strategies in knowledge-intensive organizations. It also contributes to the discussion of contingent and configurational perspectives on “KM/HRM management – performance” relationship. Additionally, the paper facilitates to the integration and mutual enrichment of KM and HRM research fields.
N. Nikolchenko. Differences Between Collaboration, Cooperation and Coordination in Supply Chains. Working Paper #3 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Key words and phrases: supply chain, performance, collaboration, cooperation, coordination, coordinating contract.
Abstract: Research attention is increasingly focused on inter-organizational relationships, that reveals in growing studies in management, particularly supply chain management. The terms collaboration, cooperation and coordination are used for qualifying inter-organizational relationships. The form of relationships between supply chain members must also match the task at hand. If the type of relationships does not match performance requirements, then such relationships become dysfunctional. The research reviews existing literature on collaboration, cooperation and coordination in supply chains and to define the differences between them, to formulate definitions of supply chain collaboration, cooperation and coordination.
M. Gogua. Consumer Behavior in Electronic Commerce: Perspectives on the Impact of Trust and Information on the Consumer Decision-Making Process. Working Paper #4 (E) - 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: consumer behavior, consumer decision-making, electronic commerce, trust, information.
Abstract: The purpose of this working paper is to develop propositions based on the analysis of current literature on electronic commerce and its influence on consumer decision-making process. Current academic research is dynamic, however, it does not directly address the issue of trust and information availability and offers fragmented insight in the influence of these concepts on the e-commerce. In this working paper, firstly, the definitions of the concepts are discussed, secondly, their relations are analyzed from the perspective of economic theory, which helps to narrow down to the models, used for the proposition derivation. This working paper’s contribution lays in the systematization of existing literature on the topic, discovering the links between the major influencing concepts, which lead to the derivation of the theoretical propositions for further empirical research.
M. Latukha, M. Shagalkina. Talent Migration in Emerging Markets: Agenda for Talent Management. Working Paper #5 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: brain drain; student migration; labor market mobility; talent management; emerging market strategies; Russia.
Abstract: Although the problem of talent migration (brain drain) is not new and many countries, especially emerging markets, experience it currently, there is no universal remedy for solving it. Most research connect brain drain with macro-level determinants (institutional, economic, political). Little attention has been paid to firm-level talent management (TM) as a possible tool for overcoming national-level brain drain. Based on existing literature on talent migration and TM, three research questions were derived aiming at identifying factors that influence talent emigration in the Russian context and the role of TM in brain drain prevention. In order to answer the research questions, quantitative study will be conducted. The data will be collected via survey. The respondents of it are graduates of Russian Universities. Expected results imply the possible positive effect of TM development on brain drain problem at a country-level.
S. Kazemi, N. Zenkevich. Supply Network Design and the Competitive Position of Leadership. Working Paper #6 (E) - 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords: supply network design, leadership, competitive positions, network structure, network interactions, performance.
Abstract: Extant studies consistently illustrate the unidimensional and interdisciplinary measurement of leadership, mostly at an individual level. However, leadership with incontrovertible benefits in supply networks cannot be measured based on the previous perspectives realistically in current dynamic and complex situations. Utilizing theoretical-conceptual research based on a review in prior theories and methodologies with grounding our study in a proposed performance framework, we examine how to investigate leaders comprehensively with integrating existent theories in three interrelated aspects of the network in which leadership will emerge.
While in general, we find that previous studies employing limited strategies to estimate leadership through performance analysis, such an approach is not universal, and consequently, the results will be far away from reality.
Rather, this research aims to leverage different theories into multilevel analysis framework with a multidimensional assessment approach to investigate leadership which is highly contingent upon not only three aspects of network relations, network structure, and organizational functions, but also some capacities and capabilities that make each organization eligible to be a leader in the supply network context.
Our results, therefore, suggest that it would be advantageous for network design or modification to take a multilevel, multidisciplinary, and multidimensional perspective and strategically incorporate integrated theories and effective characteristics concerning leadership when determining where the position of leadership in our supply network is.
A. Panibratov, L. Rysakova. The Role of National Diaspora for Internationalization of Emerging Market Firms: the Perspective of Chinese Business in Russia. Working Paper #7 (E) - 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: diaspora; legitimacy; migrants; emerging markets
Abstract: In this paper we contribute in the literature on the role of international diaspora in the economic development. Although extant studies show a positive impact of diasporas for their countries of origin, little studies show the role of foreign diasporas for the recipient countries, especially at the firm-level. This paper focuses on the impact of Chinese diaspora on Russian firms with Chinese employees. We analyze the literature about legitimacy measurement and extract factors that influence this construct in order to provide a scale. Thereafter we expect to check whether and to which extent Chinese employees influences legitimacy of Russian firms.
G. Shirokova, E. Karpinskaia. Balancing Exploration and Exploitation at Different Stages of High-tech Start-up Development: Evidence from Russia. Working Paper #8 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: organizational adaptation, exploration, exploitation, start-up development, performance.
Abstract: This study attempts to reveal the role of exploration and exploitation employment and balancing both during new venture creation process. Using longitudinal multiple case-study strategy, it tracks a vivid flow of start-up decisions and actions in-depth and over time through the series of rich interviews with founders of ten Russian high-tech start-ups and combines gained process data with the analysis start-up dynamics. As a result, a theoretical model of the relationship between exploration-exploitation and firm performance at key initial stages of development is created. This model contributes to the clarification of organizational adaptation concepts through the venture creation logics and entrepreneurial leadership processes.
A. Singh. Socio-technologic Factors of Collaborative Consumption – Analysis of Sharing Economy Based Firm in Russia. Working Paper #9 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: collaborative consumption, socio-technological factors, sharing economy, consumer behavior, social, social media, technology, emerging market, Russia.
Abstract: Ownership has long been a symbol of status in Russia but as the consumer behavior is getting changed in developed and developing countries due to digital transformation, Russia is not an exception anymore. There’s a paradigm shift in consumer behavior and collaborative consumption is leading this phenomenon. However, beyond some theoretical evidence, there is a dearth of understanding why people participate in collaborative consumption in Russia. Therefore, this research investigates the people’s motivation behind their participation in collaborative consumption. Apart from socio-technological factors, this research also explores the intricate interplay in between social and technological phenomenon behind the collaborative consumption.
In this regard, this research addresses three research questions, which are, what is the interplay in social and technological context in collaborative consumption? What are the socio-technologic factors that have an impact on a particular individual participation towards collaborative consumption? How to balance managing social and technological context of collaborative consumption? This is a conceptual paper which explains the social and technological factors that underlies the peoples’ motivation behind their participation towards collaborative consumption.
D. Kudryavtsev, M. Kubelskiy. Development of a Method for Strategic Alignment of the Organization's Activities Based on the QFD Technology. Working Paper #10 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: strategy alignment, strategy execution, Quality Function Deployment, business-architecture, enterprise architecture, strategic management
Abstract: Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to provide a model-based method of strategic alignment of the organization's activities, which will help to solve the following tasks: 1) Alignment of goals and metrics for ongoing organization’s activities (business processes, functional systems, etc.) with the organization's goals and strategy; 2) Prioritization of ongoing organization’s activities based on the high-level goals and strategy; 3) Alignment of goals and metrics of organizational development projects with goals and metrics of ongoing activities; 4) Prioritization of projects of organizational development based on the goals and metrics of ongoing activities; 5) Identify the relationship between organizational capabilities and the company's goals.
Methodology: This article is created in the paradigm of the design science research.
Findings: The method of strategic alignment of the organization's activities was suggested and demonstrated using case study. In the course of the research, it was found that QFD (Quality Function Deployment) technology can be adopted and used for strategic alignment of the organization's activities.
Research limitations/implications: As the main limitation of this research, one can single out the lack of a fundamental assessment of the created artifact in terms of its productivity and effectiveness. At this stage, the created artifact has proved itself well within the consulting practice, what can be considered as an initial qualitative assessment.
Practical implications: The created artifact has a wide range of applications for alignment of goals and metrics of the company’s activities with the company's goals and strategy.
Originality/value: In this article, an innovative method of strategic alignment that does not have full analogues is provided.
S. Muravskaia, M. Kuznetsova. The Usage of Gamification in Marketing Surveys: Opportunities and Challenges. Working Paper #11 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: marketing research, gamification, self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation.
Abstract: Current technologies bring a number of opportunities to make marketing research more effective. Still the main issue with surveys in marketing research is response rate and quality of data, despite the fact that reaching for respondents is easier now than it was ever before. One of the reasons according to research is lacking motivation of participants both to the process and to the topic. Gamification in modern business is considered as problem-solving solution to intrinsic motivation issue. However, gamification is still emerging field of study and there is no established approach to gamified marketing surveys. In this paper authors presented analysis of existing approaches to gamification and its suitability for marketing surveys creation.
A. Panibratov, D. Klishevich. Internationalization of the State-Owned Enterprises from Emerging Markets: Literature Review and Research Agenda. Working Paper #12 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: state-owned enterprises, internationalization, emerging markets.
Abstract: Research on the internationalizing state-owned companies (SOEs) is extremely relevant in the scientific community of strategic management and international business. Emerging markets show many examples of internationalized state-owned companies that are successful competitors to private firms, even though traditionally state companies are concerned mostly with their domestic markets. The research literature provides different answers to the question what theories better explain the international strategies of state-owned companies, and whether traditional theoretical approaches are able to explain these strategies. One of the dominant theoretical perspectives used in the analysis of international strategies of SOEs is the institutional perspective that explores the mutual influence of state ownership and institutional prerequisites of state-owned companies to international strategy. Scholars study the internationalization of SOEs through the lenses of resource-based view, resource dependency theory, political economy, transaction costs and neo-institutional theory. The major contribution of the research of internationalization of SOEs is that state ownership in companies indeed matters in terms of firms’ international strategies. State ownership influences the way firms internationalize, the choice of ownership in the international division, the degree of control and management features. The essence and scale of this influence continues to be in the center of scientific discussion. This review presents the promising and underexplored research avenues that have the potential for further development.
D. Khasieva. The Impact of Management of Diverse Talent Groups on Firm Performance in the Russian Context. Working Paper #13 (E) - 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: talent management practices, gender diversity, female talents, Russian context.
Abstract: During last 10 years there has been a significant rise in the number of research, which explores gender diversity as an important business asset. These studies proved the connection between women presence in the team and firm performance, innovation level of firm, and its competitive ability. These findings made diversity one of the leading directions in the development of human resource management practices.
Our study is dedicated to exploring the application of talent management, as a part of human resource management, to women with respect to their specific features. Our goal is to evaluate how these practices can impact on firm performance and to extract factors, which regulate diversity adaptation process. With this purpose, the literature review was performed. In this working paper, we present the key points of literature review in field of diversity management and talent management, identify the research gap, formulate research questions, set research framework, and ground them in the existing theories.
A. Begler. Ontologies as an Instrument for Connecting Knowledge at Different Levels. Working Paper #14 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: ontologies, knowledge processes, knowledge infrastructure.
Abstract: The working paper proposes an approach for a connection of knowledge processes. Taking into account growing information overload and sustainability issues, knowledge infrastructure should be improved. Knowledge processes exist at three levels: macro (economy), medium (industry), and micro (firm). Every level can be described with three aspects: the context in which they exist; factors, influencing knowledge processes; and technologies used to manage knowledge.
Malchenko Yu. Literature Overview in the Field of Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Solutions. Working Paper #15 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019
Keywords and phrases: consumer adoption; sustainable solutions; public goods; club goods; diffusion of innovations; social contagion; planned behaviour; consumer choice; Hofstede's cultural dimensions; knowledge transfer.
Abstract: The present literature overview stipulates the challenge of the adoption of sustainable solutions by their prospective consumers. The research outlines the most common theories investigating the issues and reflects the ones which are the most applicable for the specificity of sustainable solutions: planned behaviour and consumer choice. These theories are offered for further research on the consumer adoption of sustainable solutions.
A. Belikova. Exploration/exploitation and Firm Performance Relationship: Literature Review. Working Paper #16 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords and phrases: exploration, exploitation, firm performance, literature review.
Abstract: Despite the considerable amount of studies on exploration and exploitation and their relationship with firm performance, there is no common point of view regarding the phenomena. This work is aimed at a critical review of scientific works on the identified issues based on the empirical analysis of factors influencing exploration and exploitation as well as the relationship between exploration and exploitation and firm performance, classification of the main approaches for investigation of this scientific problem, and suggesting directions for further research. Using the systematic literature review method the author has analyzed 143 articles from 19 leading journals in the area of management, business, and entrepreneurship in the period from 1991 to 2019.
As a result, the main research directions were distinguished, which investigate (1) formation of exploration and exploitation in organizations, (2) the direct relationship between exploration and exploitation and firm performance; (3) moderators, and (4) mediators in the relationship between exploration and exploitation and firm performance. Moreover, based on the analysis of the literature, the author classified approaches for exploration and exploitation definition. The author highlights the following perspective research directions: (1) investigation of the institutional environment influence on both formation factors and relationship between exploration / exploitation and firm performance, (2) investigation of exploration and exploitation in the context of small and medium business and (3) analysis of the stages of business structures development through exploration and exploitation phenomena.
A. Panibratov, R. Sánchez. Surviving Political Instability: An Institutional Approach of Multinationals in Mexico. Working Paper #17 (E) – 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords: multinationals; unstable institutional environment; bargaining power; corporate political activity; political capabilities; Mexico.
Abstract: Business challenges of Mexico as an emerging market with unstable institutions are explored in this study. We conducted a critical discourse analysis to explore the political implications between the new administration of the Presidency of Mexico and multinationals (national and foreign). The institution-based theory will be useful to understand the political strategies implemented by multinationals (MNEs), considering the new governmental policies which criticize neoliberal measures of previous administrations and establishes new rules of the game for doing business. It is argued that corporate political activity (CPA) and political bargaining model (PBM) are vital resources for MNEs to survive in an unstable institutional environment. It is expected to contribute to the theoretical development of unstable institutions and non-market strategies in emerging markets.
A. Panibratov, A. Sato. Internationalization Strategy of Japanese MNCs in Russia. Working Paper #18 (E) - 2019. Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University: SPb, 2019.
Keywords: cultural distance, global integration, internationalization strategy, Japan, local responsiveness, MNC, Russia
Abstract: The paper offers empirical tests and is engaged with the extension of the integration-responsiveness (I-R) framework given the injection of Cultural distance. The study identifies how Cultural distance affects Global integration and Local responsiveness in terms of the Internationalization strategy of Japanese MNCs in Russia by setting a special., emphasis on Japanese MNCs in Manufacturing, and Services/Retail in Russia based on case study research with surveys. The study on the linkage of Cultural distance and I-R framework with the typology is still lacking. The contexts of Japanese MNCs and the Russian market have been ignored in the existing research. We believe that outcomes of the research contribute to the extension of the I-R framework and that can be replicable to similar cases with the generalization of the uniqueness of Japanese MNCs in Russia.
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